Physical vapor deposition, material is transported as vapor from a target to the product. Reactive elements like N2 are often added from the gas phase. The deposition temperature ranges from room temperature to 550 °C.
Chemical vapor deposition, material is exclusively taken from the gas phase, metal atoms are normally carried by complex molecules. Reactive elements like N2 are added from the gas phase. The substrate temperature is typically between 800 and 1050 °C.
Plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition, material is exclusively taken from the gas phase, but the process temperature is lowered to levels between 200 and 550 °C.
Chemical Vapor Aluminising is a process used to diffuse aluminium into the surface of a part in order to enhance temperature corrosion and oxidation resistance.
DLC, diamond like carbon
nomenclature according to the VDI 2840 standard is:
- a-C:H amorphous hydrogenated carbon with mix sp2/sp3
- ta-C:H amorphous hydrogenated carbon with sp3 as the dominant binding
- ta-C amorphous non-hydrogenated carbon with sp3 as the dominant binding (Tetrabond™)
Amorphous Diamond Like Carbon, an Ionbond coating whereby a-C:H is produced in a Radio Frequency plasma. The advantage of ADLC is that non-conductive substrates can be coated.
Adhesion is normally classified by Rockwell indentation, a diamond with tip-radius of 200 µm and cone angle of 120° is indented with a standard force (0.5 N). The image is analysed and results in a classification of HF1 to HF6. The measurement is semi-quantitative. The measurement does not result from the binding between surface and first coating layer, but the mechanical response of the coating plus substrate under load.
The adhesion test is carried out in accordance to VDI 3198
Thin films generally have a hardness much higher than the substrate. Classical hardness tests rely on a deep indentation. For thin films, the film hardness can only be determined accurately by means of an indentation depth considerably less than the film thickness. The standard hardness tests used is the Vickers Hardness test whereby a pyramid shaped diamond is applied with a standard load of e.g. 20 mN.
The thin film thickness typically ranges from 0.5 µm (decorative coatings) to 10 µm (CVD coatings). The film thickness is determined by means of a ball crater (calotest) on a coupon whereby the coating thickness can be calculated based on the resulting crater image measurements.
Friction coefficients can be measured in many ways. Generally the friction coefficient is measured without lubrication in a normal air atmosphere and against an uncoated standard steel plate.
Surface roughness is characterized by up to 6 parameters. The following two are generally considered the most relevant:
- Ra, the average surface roughness measured over a length of 40 mm
- Rp, the maximum peak height
Ionbond trade name for AlCrN coatings for cutting tools
Ionbond trade name for TiSiN coatings for cutting tools
Ionbond trade name for AlTiN coatings for cutting tools
Ionbond trade name for multi purpose cutting tool coatings and coatings for forming and moulding operations
Ionbond trade name for CVD coatings and CVD equipment
Ionbond trade name for decorative PVD coatings
Ionbond trade name for coatings for mechanical components
Ionbond trade name for DLC or ADLC decorative PACVD coatings for luxury goods
Ionbond trade name for hydrogen free diamond like carbon coatings used for machine tools employed in milling of composite materials and aluminum.
Tetrabond™ technology is an enhanced arc technology based on the Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) process. The process was developed by Ionbond and allows for the deposition of extremely hard, macro-particle free, non-hydrogenated diamond like carbon (DLC) films.